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On Linux, by default USB dongles can't be accessed by users, for security reasons. To allow user access, so-called "udev rules" must be installed.

For some users, things will work automatically:

If you still need to setup a rule, a simple way to do it is:

git clone
cd solo/udev
make setup

Or, manually, create a file like 70-solokeys-access.rules in your /etc/udev/rules.d directory. Additionally, run the following command after you create this file (it is not necessary to do this again in the future):

sudo udevadm control --reload-rules && sudo udevadm trigger

How do udev rules work and why are they needed

In Linux, udev (part of systemd, read man 7 udev) handles "hot-pluggable" devices, of which Solo and U2F Zero are examples. In particular, it creates nodes in the /dev filesystem (in Linux, everything is a file), which allow accessing the device.

By default, for security reasons often only the root user can access these nodes, unless they are whitelisted using a so-called "udev rule". So depending on your system setup, such a udev rule may be necessary to allow non-root users access to the device, for instance yourself when using a browser to perform two-factor authentication.

What does a udev rule do?

It matches events it receives (typically, comparing with the == operator), and performs actions (typically, setting attributes of the node with the = or += operators).

What is hidraw?

HID are human-interface devices (keyboards, mice, Solo keys), attached via USB. The hidraw system gives software direct ("raw") access to the device.

Which node is my Solo or U2F Zero security key?

You can either compare ls /dev before and after inserting, or use the udevadm tool, e.g., by running

udevadm monitor --environment --udev | grep DEVNAME

Typically, you will detect /dev/hidraw0. Using the symlinks above, you can follow symlinks from /dev/solokey and /dev/u2fzero.

How do you know if your system is configured correctly?

Try reading and writing to the device node you identified in the previous step. Assuming the node is called /dev/hidraw0:

  • read: try cat /dev/solokey, if you don't get "permission denied", you can access.
  • write: try echo "hello, Solo" > /dev/solokey. Again, if you don't get denied permission, you're OK.

Which rule should I use, and how do I do it?

Simplest is probably to copy Yubico's rule file to /etc/udev/rules.d/fido.rules on your system, for instance:

$ (cd /etc/udev/rules.d/ && sudo curl -O)

This contains rules for Yubico's keys, the U2F Zero, and many others. The relevant line for U2F Zero is:

KERNEL=="hidraw*", SUBSYSTEM=="hidraw", ATTRS{idVendor}=="10c4", ATTRS{idProduct}=="8acf", TAG+="uaccess"

It matches on the correct vendor/product IDs of 10c4/8acf, and adds the TAG uaccess. Older versions of udev use rules such as

KERNEL=="hidraw*", SUBSYSTEM=="hidraw", ATTRS{idVendor}=="10c4", MODE="0644", GROUP="plugdev"

which sets MODE of the device node to readable by anyone.

Now reload the device events.

udevadm trigger

What about vendor and product ID for Solo?

Key Vendor ID Product ID
Solo 0483 a2ca
U2F Zero 10c4 8acf

You got this all wrong, I can't believe it!

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